Level of Psychological Safety among Teachers of Vocational Education and Training Schools in Palestine





Palestine, psychological safety, vocational education and training schools


Objectives: The current study investigates the level of psychological safety of teachers in vocational education and training schools in Palestine, as well as investigates the presence of any statistically significant differences in teachers' responses that could be attributed to any of the study’s variables: educational district, school gender, gender, educational qualification, and years of experience.

Methods: The researcher used the descriptive analytical method to achieve the study objectives. A questionnaire was developed to measure the level of psychological safety. The study sample included (177) male and female teachers in vocational training and education schools for the academic year 2021-2022, who were selected using the comprehensive survey.

Results: The study results revealed that the level of psychological safety among teachers was high. Except for two items that came to an average degree, which are related to professional learning communities and giving effective feedback. Furthermore, the results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences due to the variables under study.

Conclusions: The study comes out with several recommendations, among which  are the need for conducting further research on psychological safety, as well as the need for the Ministry of Education to adopt professional learning communities in schools and facilitate their implementation. In addition to conducting training workshops of providing feedback by principals about teachers’ performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Abu Bakr, A. (2019). The reality of the application of comprehensive quality by public secondary school principals and its relationship to the psychological health of workers. An unpublished master's thesis, An-Najah University, Nablus.

Abu Omar, T., & Ramahi, R. (2021). The Degree the Female Private Preparatory School Principals Practice Organizational Conflict Management Strategies in Jerusalem from the Female Teachers Viewpoint. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 48(3), 174-187

Adwan, S. (2020). Standards available to principals of vocational schools in the Ministry of Education, a case study of the directorates of the northern West Bank. An unpublished master's thesis, An-Najah National University, Palestine.

Alsalem, A., & Abu Snaineh, A. (2021). The Extent of Competence of Public Secondary School Teachers in the Directorate of Education for the Second Zarqa District. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 48(2), 404-414

Bani Hamdan, S. (2022). Perceptions of Tenth Grade Students at Public Schools in Jerash Governorate of Vocational Education. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 49(1), 147-160.

Bashkireva, A., Bashkireva, T., Morozov, A., Evdokimova, A., & Tsvetkov, S. (2021). The psychological safety of students in the context of digitalization as a factor of social health. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 295, p. 05001). EDP Sciences.

Dramanu, B. Y. (2020). Psychological safety and work engagement of senior high school teachers: Moderating role of psychological flexibility. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(3), 17-35.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative science quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.

Edmondson, A. (2012). Teaming: How Organizations Learn, Innovate, and Compete in the Knowledge Economy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Edmonson, A. (2019). The fearless organization. Creating Psychological Safety in the Workplace for Learning, Innovation, and Growth, 2018.

Eid, R. (2015). Competencies and future roles of the school leader. Journal of Educational Administration, 2(4), 275-290.

Fernández González, M. J., Pīgozne, T., Surikova, S., & Vasečko, Ļ. (2020). Students’ and staff perceptions of vocational education institution heads’ virtues. Quality Assurance in Education, 28(1), 1-18.

Hsiang-Te Tsuei, S., Lee, D., Ho, C., Regehr, G., & Nimmon, L. (2019). Exploring the construct of psychological safety in medical education. Academic Medicine, 94(11S), S28-S35.

Irai, P., & Chieh Lu, A. C. (2018). Exploring the relationship among psychological safety, knowledge sharing, and innovation. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 4(3), 126-135.

Katib, S. (2015). The relationship between the psychological safety of the educational environment and the psychological health of students. Arabic Studies in Education and Psychology, 60, 353-384.

Kim, S., Lee, H., & Connerton, T. P. (2020). How psychological safety affects team performance: mediating role of efficacy and learning behavior. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1581.

Nellitawati, N., & Boon, Y. (2018). The role of headmaster to improve pedagogic competence of teachers in Vocational high school.

Nofal , M. B. ., Abu Khalifeh, I. T. . ., & Rommaneh, A. K. . (2023). Evaluating the Degree of Readiness to Practice Professional Distance Learning Communities (Virtually) in Light of the Covid-19 Crisis: Perspectives of School Leaders and Teachers at Amman Educational Directorate in Jordan. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 50(2), 253–274.

OECD. (2021). Teachers and Leaders in Vocational Education and Training. Paris: OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training.

Salman, A, and Ashqar, M. (2020). A proposed model for building professional learning communities to improve the level of professional performance of teachers in the light of strategies for implementing sustainable development. An unpublished master's thesis, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Shahid, S., & Din, M. (2021). Fostering Psychological Safety in Teachers: The Role of School Leadership, Team Effectiveness & Organizational Culture. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 9(2), 122-149.

Smeets, L., Gijselaers, W. H., Meuwissen, R. H., & Grohnert, T. (2021). Beyond psychological safety–the role of direct supervisor behavior in fostering learning from errors at the workplace. Vocations and Learning, 14(3), 533-558.

Taher, B.،& Nasser, A. (2019). Job satisfaction and its relationship to mental health among middle school teachers. Journal of Humanities and Applied Sciences, 7, 86-105.

The Ministry of Education and Higher Education. (2022). The strategic plan for the education sector 2017-2022. Ramallah, Palestine.

The Ministry of Education. (2021). The annual educational statistical book for the year 2020-2021. Ramallah, Palestine.

Wahyuni, D. S., & Sugihartini, N. (2021, April). The Core Competencies of Vocational High School Teachers In 21st Century Learning. In 2nd International Conference on Technology and Educational Science (ICTES 2020) (pp. 228-233). Atlantis Press.

Zhu, X., Muneer, S., & Naveed, R. T. (2021). Does employee psychological safety expediate employee performance and firm performance: mediating role of employee task performance and helping behavior. Rev. Argent. Clín. Psicol, 30, 509-518.




How to Cite

Al-Jayyouci, A. Z. . (2023). Level of Psychological Safety among Teachers of Vocational Education and Training Schools in Palestine. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 50(3), 379–392. https://doi.org/10.35516/edu.v50i3.3403



Received 2022-12-21
Accepted 2023-02-06
Published 2023-10-23